Linework fixes the relationship between adjacent or remote elements and areas of the painting surface, and their relative activity or passivity.(2) Shape and Mass includes the various different areas of colour, tone and texture, together with any specific images therein. The Last Supper by Leonardo Da Vinci) are optically arranged around geometric shapes (or a mixture thereof).
Negative space can also be used to emphasise certain features of the composition.(3) Not surprisingly, given that the human eye can identify up to 10 million differing hues, colour has many different uses.
Above all, colour is used to depict the effects of light (see the series of Haystacks or Rouen Cathedral by Claude Monet), while many great painters like Caravaggio and Rembrandt have exploited the contrast between colours for dramatic effect - notably in the technique of chiaroscuro (see Rembrandt's The Night Watch).
See colour in painting.(4) The elements of Volume and Space are concerned with how the painter creates depth and spatial relationships within the flat surface of the picture.
For example, Egyptian art is noted for its iconographic imagery, as are Byzantine panel paintings and pre-Renaissance frescos.One of the main painting mediums of the ancient world, encaustic painting employs hot beeswax as a binding medium to hold coloured pigments and to enable their application to a surface - usually wood panels or walls.It was widely used in Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Byzantine art.(See colorito.)It can be used in a purely descriptive manner - Egyptians used different colours to distinguish Gods or Pharaohs, and to differentiate men from women - or to convey moral messages or emotional moods, or enhance perspective (fainter colours for distant backgrounds).See also: Titian and Venetian Colour Painting 1500-76.